Primary Sources

General World History:

  1. Fordham University site on general and comparative World History 
  2. History of the World in 100 Objects (British Museum site) 
  3. PACE (Project on Ancient Cultural Engagement)  

Near East and Mesopotamia 
  1. Sumer to Assyria:
  2. Israel
  3. Persia
  1. On Late Predynastic and Early Dynastic Period 3400-2686 BCE
  2. Old Kingdom 2686-2160 BCE
    2. On the Saqqara site near Memphis
    3. Unas pyramid at Saqqara
    4. The Giza Archives (Boston Museum of Fine Arts)
  3. First Intermediate Period 2160-2055 BCE
    1. Miriam Lichtheim Ancient Egyptian Literature:  A Book of Readings (Vol. 1:  The Old and Middle Kingdoms (1973) and see item no. 12 below.
  4. Middle Kingdom 2055-1650 BCE
    1. Lahun
    2. Beni Hassan rock cut tombs 
    3. Semna dispatches from the British Museum 
  5. Second Intermediate Period 1700-1550 BCE
  6. New Kingdom 1550-1069 BCE 
  7. Third Intermediate Period 1069-715 BCE
  8. Late Period 715-332 BCE
  9. 332-30 BCE Ptolemaic Period
  10. Roman Period 30BC-395AD
  11. Egyptian Literature
  12. Egyptian History
  13. Digital Egypt
  14. Theban Mapping Project
  15. General Info and Chronology:  http:/
  16. Metropolitan Museum 
  17. On the Pharaoah Akhenaton
  1. Greek Literature:  Perseus Project 
  2. Greek History
  3. Hesiod, Works and Days (Archaic Greece prose and poetry on everyday life)
  4. Psuedo-Xenophon, The Constitution of the Athenians (1; 4-8.1;10-12) (Midterm Essay assignment - see syllabus and handout)  Another version of this text is found at the Fordham Internet Ancient History Sourcebook.  
  5. Aristophanes, The Assemblywomen [or THE ECCLESIAZUSAE] (Midterm Essay assignment - see syllabus and handout)  The online edition is the complete text - the handout given in class is a shortened abstract of portions of the play.
  6. Aristotle, Politics (1253b1-34, 54a10-24, b7-15, 59a37-b4) (Midterm Essay assignment - see syllabus and handout)
Roman Republic and Empire:  
  1. Literature: Corpus Latin Scriptorum
  2. Internet Classics Archive (MIT site)
  3. History:
  4. Later Antiquity and Roman Empire:
  5. Lacus Curtius:  Greek and Latin sources
  6. Roman Emperors encyclopedic database 
  7. Timelines for Roman History
  8. Tertullian Fathers Database of Greek and Roman texts
  9. Rome Reborn:  Accessible through Google Earth these graphic files offer a recreation of Rome's civic monuments and forum in 3D with an interactive database to primary texts that described the context of each building.  
  10.      .     Ostia:  Study the website on Ostia, the ancient Roman port city (5-10 points)
    a.       Computer reconstruction of Ostia
    b.      Visit the Virtual Museum
    10)      Pompeii; Take these virtual narrated tours of Pompeii
    a.       Begin with the narrated walking tour  by John Dobbins, Director of the Pompeii Forum: 
                                                                  i.      Narration with View from Southeast Stairway of the Basilica
                                                                ii.      Panorma from Southeast Stairway of the Basilica (no narration)
                                                              iii.      Steadycam Walk from Via del Foro to the Basilica
                                                              iv.      Steadycam Walk from Via Marina to the Eumachia Building
    b.      Aspects of Pompeian Urbanism with C.W. Westfall and Mark Schimmenti 
    c.       Part 1 A discussion of a neighborhood with intersecting avenues
    Part 2  Private homes and a side street, a temple
    Part 3  The Forum  (audio cuts out  2/3 of the way for a few minutes and then resumes)
    d.      Pompeii Video recreation by the Discovery Channel
    e.       Pompeii Forum Project is a study of only the forum
    f.       Interactive plan of the Pompeii Forum:
  1. Accounts of Meroe, Kush and Axum
  2. African history
Periphery of Roman Empire
  1. Roman Britain
  2. More on Roman Britain
    1. Celtic languages and texts in Latin from the CELT database University College Cork
  3. Germanica
  4. Mauretania, Numidia and Libya
  5. Libya Studies Institute (UK)
  6. Palestine, Southwest Asia / Asia Minor 
    1. Nag Hammadi Library Gnostic texts 
    2. Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean

India and South Asia

China, Japan, and other Asian
  1. Incan and Aztec
  2. Popol Vuh (Precolumbian mythological creation text)
  3. Mayan writing system and literature
A History of the World in 100 Objects.

Click on the British Museum link for more information on this object, which includes a list of reference sources.  Research other relevant sources, for instance the Rosetta Stone's (Object/episode 33) is available at this British Museum website.  
You may listen to the audio transcript for each of the series broadcast or read the transcript by clicking on the hyperlink below.  Be sure to cite to the transcript in your interpretation of the object. Interpret the historical context of production of your main object and compare its utility, function and purpose to a similar or related object in the list.  What social function or development does the object suggest?  Is there an ideological or artistic function or meaning of the object.  How do place and understand this object in its historical context?   A list of these objects is at: